Distributions from Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc.
A 1099-R, “Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc.”, is a form used in the U.S. to report distributions from various types of retirement accounts and certain other tax-deferred accounts received during the tax year to both the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the person or entity who received the income. This form is typically filed by the institutions or entities that manage and distribute funds from retirement and certain other tax-deferred accounts. This form is part of the 1099 series, which are used to report various types of income that individuals may receive throughout the year other than salary from an employer. It is an essential document for tax reporting purposes, ensuring that interest income is correctly reported to the IRS.
Per the IRS, file Form 1099-R for each person to whom you have made a designated distribution or for whom you are treated as having made a distribution of $10 or more from:
- Profit-sharing or retirement plans.
- Any individual retirement arrangements (IRAs).
- Annuities, pensions, insurance contracts, survivor income benefit plans.
- Permanent and total disability payments under life insurance contracts.
- Charitable gift annuities, etc.
- Why do you need to file a 1099-R?
- Who Needs to File a 1099-R?
- Are there any exemptions to filing a 1099-R?
- What is the deadline for filing a 1099-R?
- What is required to file a 1099-R?
- What are the penalties for 1099-R?
- Do you need to e-file a 1099-R?
- Is state filing required for the 1099-R?
- What elements make up a 1099-R form?
- Can you correct a 1099-R?
Why do you need to file a 1099-R?
The primary purpose of Form 1099-R is used to report distributions from various types of retirement accounts and certain other tax-deferred accounts. The form is provided by the entity that paid the income to the recipient and a copy is also sent to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Filing a 1099-R is essential for several reasons:
- The primary purpose of the 1099-R is to inform the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the recipient about the distribution. This allows the IRS to verify that the recipient reports the distribution appropriately on their income tax return.
- Depending on the type and circumstances of the distribution, it may be taxable. The 1099-R provides details on the gross distribution and any taxable amount. By receiving a 1099-R, recipients can determine the taxable portion of their distribution and report it on their tax return.
Early Withdrawal Penalties
- If funds are withdrawn from a retirement account before the age of 59½ (with certain exceptions), there might be an additional 10% early withdrawal penalty. The 1099-R helps identify these early distributions by using specific distribution codes.
- Even if you roll over the full amount of a distribution into another retirement account and it isn’t taxable, the distribution usually still gets reported on a 1099-R. The IRS uses this information to ensure that rollovers are handled correctly and within the allowed 60-day timeframe.
Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)
- Once individuals reach a certain age, they may be required to take minimum distributions from their retirement accounts. The 1099-R helps the IRS track these distributions to ensure that individuals meet their RMD obligations.
Tracking Non-Taxable Amounts
- The 1099-R provides information on any after-tax contributions or insurance premiums. This helps recipients determine the non-taxable portion of their distribution.
- If any federal or state tax was withheld from the distribution, the 1099-R reports these amounts, which recipients can then credit against their tax liability when filing their tax return.
Distributions reported on a 1099-R can include:
- Distributions from employer-sponsored retirement plans like 401(k)s and 403(b)s.
- Distributions or withdrawals.
- Distributions (especially important if the distribution is not qualified).
Pensions and Annuities
- Payments received from pension plans or annuity contracts.
- Distributions from these business-related plans.
- Distributions such as those from certain life insurance contracts.
Permanent and Total Disability
- Payments under life insurance or annuity contracts or employer plans.
- For qualified plans.
Who needs to file a 1099-R?
Form 1099-R is filed by the institutions or entities that manage and distribute funds from retirement and certain other tax-deferred accounts. Specifically, the entities responsible for issuing Form 1099-R include:
Trustees or Issuers of Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)
- This includes both Traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs.
Pension Plan Administrators
- For defined benefit or defined contribution pension plans.
- Especially for distributions from annuity contracts.
Plan Custodians or Administrators of Qualified Plans
- Such as 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, and profit-sharing plans.
Trustees of Profit-Sharing or Stock Bonus Plans
- For any distributions from these plans.
- That handle distributions from retirement accounts.
Custodians of Coverdell Education Savings Accounts (ESAs)
- For distributions from ESAs.
Custodians of Archer Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs) and Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)
- For distributions from these accounts.
Custodians or Trustees of Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) plans and Savings Incentive Match Plans for Employees (SIMPLE)
- For distributions from these types of retirement accounts.
These entities must provide Form 1099-R to the individual who received the distribution (or to the deceased account owner’s beneficiary in the case of a death distribution) and must also file a copy of the form with the IRS. It’s important to note that even if the distribution is rolled over into another retirement account and is therefore not taxable to the recipient, the distributing entity is still typically required to report the distribution using Form 1099-R.
Are there any exemptions to filing a 1099-R?
Yes, there are certain situations in which a 1099-R may not be required to be filed. However, the exemptions are limited. Here are some of the exemptions:
Minimum Reporting Threshold
- Generally, distributions of less than $10 from retirement or profit-sharing plans, IRAs, annuities, or insurance contracts are not required to be reported on Form 1099-R.
Transfer of trustee-to-trustee
- Direct transfers between trustees of IRAs or retirement accounts (e.g., when you change trustees or rollover assets from one trustee to another without taking possession of the funds) typically don’t need a 1099-R, since they are not considered distributions. This is common in a direct rollover from one retirement account to another.
- Loans from qualified plans, treated as a plan distribution, may not be reported if certain conditions are met.
Military Death Benefits
- Death benefits paid by the Armed Forces to a deceased’s survivors are not reportable.
Certain Annuity Starting Dates
- Payments that began before 1983 under a qualified plan (under specific circumstances) may not be reported.
Dividends on Insurance Contracts
- Dividends paid by mutual life insurance companies, which can be left on deposit with the insurance company, are not reportable.
What is the deadline for filing a 1099-R?
The deadline for filing a 1099-R can vary based on the several factors:
Sending to Recipients
- The 1099-R form should be furnished to the recipient by January 31 of the year following the payment year.
Filing with the IRS
- If you are filing on paper, the 1099-R forms should be submitted to the IRS by February 28 (or the last day of February) of the year following the payment year.
- If you are filing electronically, the deadline extends to March 31 of the year following the payment year.
However, if any of these dates fall on a weekend or a holiday, the deadline may be extended to the next business day. Additionally, if you discover an error after the initial filing, there are separate deadlines for corrected 1099-R forms.
Remember, missing these deadlines can result in penalties, so it’s crucial to stay informed and act timely.
What is required to file a 1099-R?
To file a Form 1099-R, you will need certain information about both the payer (the person or business making the payment) and the recipient (the person or business receiving the payment). Here’s what is required to file a 1099-R:
Information about the Payer
- Payer’s Name and Address
- Provide your legal business name and mailing address.
- Payer’s Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)
- This could be your Employer Identification Number (EIN) or your Social Security Number (SSN), depending on your business structure. If you’re a sole proprietor, you might use your SSN; if you’re a business entity, you’d use your EIN.
- Payer’s Phone Number
- Include a phone number where the payer can be reached.
Information about the Recipient
- Recipient’s Name and Address
- Provide the legal name and mailing address of the individual or business receiving the payment.
- Recipient’s Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)
- This could be the recipient’s Social Security Number (SSN) if an individual or their Employer Identification Number (EIN) if a business entity.
Form specific information
- Box 1 – Gross distribution
- Box 7a1 – Distribution code 1
What are the penalties for 1099-MISC?
Please see the penalties section for details.
Do you need to e-file a 1099-MISC?
Please see the e-file section for details.
Is state filing required for the 1099-MISC?
Please see the state filing section for details.
What elements make up a 1099-R form?
The 1099-R contains several boxes, each designed to report specific types of income or information. Here is a breakdown of the boxes on the 1099-R:
- Box 1 – Gross distribution
- This is the total amount distributed before any taxes or deductions.
- Box 2a – Taxable amount
- This represents the portion of the distribution that is subject to income tax. It may be equal to the gross distribution, but in some cases, it can be less if certain exemptions apply.
- Box 2b – Total distribution
- This typically includes the gross distribution plus any amounts withheld for federal income tax.
- Box 3 – Capital gain
- (if applicable).
- Box 4 – Federal income tax withheld
- This is the amount of federal income tax that was withheld from the distribution.
- Box 5 – Employee contributions/insurance premiums
- If applicable, this box reports any contributions or insurance premiums paid by the recipient that were previously taxed.
- Box 6 – Net unrealized appreciation in employer’s securities
- This box can be used to report the federal income tax withholding rate.
- Box 7: Distribution code
- This code indicates the type of distribution (e.g., early distribution, rollover, required minimum distribution, etc.). Each code has specific meanings and tax implications.
- IRA/SEP/SIMPLE Information
- Enter an “X” in the IRA/SEP/SIMPLE checkbox if the distribution is from a traditional IRA, SEP IRA, or SIMPLE IRA. Do not check the box for a distribution from a Roth IRA or for an IRA recharacterization.
- Box 8 – Other
- Enter the current actuarial value of an annuity contract that is part of a lump-sum distribution. Do not include this item in boxes 1 and 2a.
- Box 9a – Your percentage of total distribution
- If this is a total distribution and it is made to more than one person, enter the percentage received by the person whose name appears on Form 1099-R. You need not complete this box for any IRA distributions or for a direct rollover.
- Box 9b – Total employee contributions
- You are not required to enter the total employee contributions or designated Roth contributions in box 9b. However, because this information may be helpful to the recipient, you may choose to report them.
- Box 10 – Amount allocable to IRR within 5 years
- Enter the amount of the distribution allocable to an IRR made within the 5-year period beginning with the first day of the year in which the rollover was made. Do not complete this box if an exception under section 72(t) applies.
- Box 11 – 1st year of desig. Roth contrib.
- Enter the first year of the 5-tax-year period. This is the year in which the designated Roth account was first established by the recipient.
- Box 12 – FATCA filing requirement
- Check the box if you are an FFI reporting a cash value insurance contract or annuity contract that is a U.S. account.. In addition, check the box if you are a U.S. payer that is reporting on Form 1099-R as part of satisfying your requirement to report with respect to a U.S. account for chapter 4.
- Box 13 – Date of Payment
- Enter here the date payment was made for reportable death benefits under section 6050Y.
- Box 14 – State tax withheld
- If the payer withheld any state income tax on behalf of the recipient, the amount is reported in this box.
- Box 15 – State/Payer’s state no
- This box indicates the state for which the income and tax details are being reported. It will also include the payer’s state identification number, which is an identifier assigned by the state’s revenue or taxation department.
Please see the state filing section for details.
- Box 16 – State distribution
- This is where the amount related to that specific state is reported. If a recipient earned income in multiple states from the same payer, they might receive multiple forms, each one showing the amount of income and tax details related to a specific state.
- Box 17 – Locality tax withheld
- This is the amount of the local tax withheld.
- Box 18 – Name of locality
- This is the name of the locality.
- Box 19 – Locality distribution
- This is the the amount of the local distribution.
Remember, not all boxes will be filled out on every 1099-R form. Only the relevant boxes for the specific payments made will have amounts or indicators.
Can you correct a 1099-R?
Yes, you can correct a 1099-R. Please see the corrections and negations section for details.